Northern European AC/DC power system model with a North Sea Wind Power Hub
In many power systems, the increased penetration of inverter-based renewable generation will cause a decrease in kinetic energy storage, leading to higher frequency excursions after a power disturbance. This is the case of the future Nordic Power System (NPS). The look-ahead study reported in  shows that the chosen units participating in Frequency Containment Reserves (FCR) cannot keep the frequency above the prescribed threshold following the outage of the largest plant. This analysis relies on this detailed model of the Northern European grid. The model includes the HVDC links that connect the NPS to the rest of the European grid and the HVDC links are equipped with an emergency power controller, which can supplement or even replace part of the FCR.
Moreover, the model includes the future North Sea Wind Power Hub under two configurations, namely low and zero inertia, which is connected through HVDC links. The model is provided in PowerFactory format and is publicly available.
 D. Obradovic, M. Dijokas, G. Misyris, T. Weckesser and T. Van Cutsem, "Frequency dynamics of the Northern European AC/DC power system: a look-ahead study," in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2022.3154720.